testanchor

HEALTHY MADE EASY
.

Teens & Supplements Series: Sports Drinks

Sports drinks are sweetened and flavoured drinks containing water, carbohydrates, salts and colourants as main ingredients. Sports drinks are also available in powder format for the user to reconstitute in water. 

However, sports drinks in ready-to-drink are the more popular format and are sold in most grocery stores.

Sports drinks are not to be confused with energy drinks which are basically similar in formulation, but contain added caffeine. 

While sports drinks were designed for individuals participating in physical activity of prolonged duration, they are now commonly consumed by youths worldwide, as a daily drink. 

The health consequences of using sports drinks outside of a sports context can be significant.

Why are Sports Drinks so popular?

Sports drinks are commonly consumed by non-athletes mainly for quenching thirst, as a substitute for carbonated soda drinks and as an energy source.

Sports drinks are also believed to be healthier than carbonated soda drinks because of the way they are marketed and the use of sportspeople in marketing campaigns. Sports drinks also contain slightly lower amounts of sugar (7-8% sugar) than carbonated soda drinks (10%).

Manufacturers also target adolescents in their marketing by using product names that appeal to that consumer group, athletes that the latter look up to or social media influencers. For instance, Gatorade regraded their drink as “G-Series” as the name is more attractive to teens.

Dangers of Using Sports Drinks as a “Thirst Quencher Drink”.

Excessive Sugar intake: Sports drinks contain about 8% carbohydrates which means that a typical 250ml bottle packs about 20g of sugar (5 teaspoons).

The sugars in sports drinks can lead to excessive caloric intake, which can increase children’s and adolescents’ risk for becoming overweight and obese. It is easier to overconsume sugar in the form of drinks compared to, say, fruits. 

Dental health: citric acid used in sports drinks can cause dental enamel erosion when consumed excessively (see guidelines below). The sugars in the drinks are also acted upon by oral bacteria, leading to dental caries. 

Nutrient imbalances: sports drinks typically contain about 200mg of Sodium per serving. Excessive Sodium intake increases the risk of high blood pressure. Sports drinks are typically devoid of micronutrients like vitamins and have been found to be negatively associated with milk and Calcium, Vitamin D, Folate and Iron, etc. (ref)

Unhealthy additives: sports drinks tend to contain potentially harmful additives like artificial food colourants and preservatives 

Our Recommendations:

Sports drinks have an important, specific role in the diet of young athletes who are engaged in prolonged vigorous sports activity—primarily to rehydrate and replenish carbohydrate, electrolytes, and water lost during exercise. 

Sports drinks are recommended for physical activities lasting more than 1 hour. Common examples include: rugby training, marathon training and races, competitive soccer and tennis matches, and long cycling races. 

 For any activity lasting less than 1 hour, especially in normal weather conditions, sports drinks are not recommended. Water can do the job very well. 

 A pre-exercise meal or shake can serve to load up on energy before exercise lasting less than 1 hour. 

 For daily hydration, water or milk fit the bill perfectly. 

 

Author Bio
Veeraj Goyaram, MSc (Med) Exer. Sci (UCT) cum laude, BSc (Hons) Biology with Human Nutrition research project

Veeraj’s is passionate about the research and development of nutritional products for optimal health and performance, with a particular interest in sports, child and diabetic nutrition products. Veeraj was previously a graduate student at the University of Cape Town, where he conducted lab research on the effect of exercise and nutrition on the function of genes in muscle. His research was published in renowned scientific journals and medical textbooks on Diabetes and Exercise (PubMed listing). Veeraj keeps fit by regularly lifting weights and taking daily walks.

Seniors: Why Make Protein Your BFF! [With Infographic]

Here’s What You Need to Know:

  • We lose muscle tissue as we age and this is not a good thing to allow to happen. 
  • To counter muscle loss, a high protein diet is recommended.  
  • It has been found that the current RDA of protein is only adequate to survive but inadequate to thrive. 
  • A higher protein intake, evenly spaced over several meals, with about 30-45g of protein per meal is recommended. 
  • Physical exercise in combination with high protein intake gives the best results. 
  • Supplements can assist those who battle with appetite.

Consuming enough protein should not be a priority only for athletes and the young and growing. Seniors stand to benefit from consuming higher amounts of protein too.

The reason for the higher protein recommendation is that at around the age of 40 the human body begins to lose protein, mostly from muscle. This gradual loss of muscle, medically termed sarcopenia (1)

Cross section of leg muscle showing loss of muscle and infiltration of fat tissue. Cross-sectional area does not change much.

The Consequences of Muscle Loss

❶ Loss of muscular strength makes it harder to do things.

❷ Weaker muscles mean that there is reduced mobility and independence.

❸ Reduced ability to maintain normal blood sugar levels as muscles is an important site of glucose uptake. This increases the risk of insulin resistance and diabetes.

❹ Muscle is metabolically-active tissue that burns calories. Losing it makes fat easier to accumulate. Although bodyweight may not change much on the scale, fat is being replaced by muscle. 

 

As scary as this may sound, declines in skeletal muscle mass and strength are major contributors to increased mortality and reduced quality of life in older people.

The two proven approaches to fight age-related muscle loss are:

a. Consuming greater than recommended amounts of dietary protein frequently throughout the day

b. Combining the above with being physically active. 

Why More Protein?farmer old man in studio

Dietary protein stimulates the synthesis of muscle proteins. This process goes on in full swing in younger individuals but somehow with age, the muscles lose the responsiveness to the stimulatory effect of dietary protein and thus cannot be maintained easily.

This phenomenon is known as anabolic resistance and is one of the key causes of age-related muscle loss, the other causes being a drop in hormone levels and lack of exercise.

What’s wrong with our current protein RDA?

The current recommendations (Recommended Daily Allowance-RDA) is currently set at 0.8g protein per kilogram of bodyweight per day (0.8g/ kg BW/ day) for all adults regardless of age and sex.

Unfortunately, this one-size-fits-all recommendation does not consider the changes in metabolism that comes with age (2). 

Some avant-garde organisations like the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) have established the following guidelines (3): 

 1 and 1.2 g/kg a day for healthy older people.

 1.2-1.5 g/ kg/ day for older people who have acute or chronic illness

 An even higher intake (2g/ kg BW/ day) for older individuals with severe illness or injury, or actively exercising (4).

Practical Recommendations

A. Consume More total daily protein14172094_722257704579438_1126576326_n

A good starting point is to consume about 1.2g/ kg/ day. The higher protein recommendations do not translate into a lot more food. For instance, a 70kg person needs 84g of protein per day split over several meals. 

If you have any kidney problems, we recommend speaking to your doctor before embarking on a high protein diet.

B. More protein at each meal.

While it takes an intake of 20g protein per meal to fully maximise protein synthesis in muscle, seniors need a higher intake per meal to experience the similar tissue-building effects.

Research has situated this dose at about 30-45g of protein per meal (5)

C. Space protein meals evenly.

Most people hit their highest protein intake at their dinner time meal. Lunchtime meal is a little lower in protein and breakfast is most often lowest in protein.

The current recommendation is to have 1-2 meals a day that contain the recommended 30-45 g protein per meal. 

D. Look for high quality proteins

High quality proteins are sourcHealthy fitness elderly couple. Sport and exercise concept.es of protein in your diet that contains all the essential amino acids to make the proteins within our bodies.

High quality protein sources also contain a lot of other nutrients and that includes calcium, iron and lots of other vitamins and minerals. 

Sources of high quality protein might vary from foods that we traditionally recognise like milk and dairy products, eggs, lean meats, but they can also include items like beans and legumes and peas. 

E. Get Active

Physical activity and exercise are important tools to counter muscle loss. Exercise is an important stimulator of protein synthesis in muscle and exercise in combination with higher protein intake gives the best effect. 

Get clearance from your doctor and get help from a biokineticist to devise you an ideal program.

F. Food vs. Supplements

If enough protein can be obtained from the diet, supplementation is not necessary.

However, protein supplements, as long as you can find one without unwanted additives and adulterants, can help because they are convenient and easy to consume especially for those who battle with appetite.

Protein supplements are generally based on whey protein which is high in essential amino acids, particularly the amino acid Leucine which is an important trigger for muscle protein synthesis.

The best vegan protein supplements are based on pea protein isolate, brown rice protein or hemp protein or a blend thereof.

Use our Protein Supplement Selection Guide to find your way through the maze of protein supplements on the market.

About the Author

Veeraj Goyaram, MSc (Med) Exer. Sci (UCT) cum laude, BSc (Hons) Biology.

Veeraj’s passion revolves around researching and developing nutritional products for optimal health and performance, with a particular interest in sports, child and diabetic nutrition products. Veeraj was previously a graduate student at the University of Cape Town, where he examined the effect of exercise and nutrition on the function of genes in muscle. His research was published in renowned scientific journals and medical textbooks on Diabetes and Exercise (PubMed listing). Veeraj keeps healthy by regularly lifting weights and taking daily walks.

The Benefits of “Training for the Pump”

Here’s What You Need to Know:

  • The pump is the swollen or congested feeling you get in a muscle during a workout. 
  • New findings show that the pump has more than just cosmetic benefits. It can also increase protein synthesis and promote muscle growth.  
  • Pump training is advantageous for those who, for some reason, cannot lift heavier weights. 
  • There are many ways to maximise the pump while training. We show you the top two tricks here. 
  • Beetroot juice and Citrulline Malate intake are two ways to nutritionally assist blood flow during workout and thus muscle pumps.  

The feeling of congestion in the muscle felt during training, otherwise known as the “pump” is one of the most gratifying feelings ever one could experience while exercising.

Good news! Recent research has shown that the pump plays an important physiological function in response to training; it helps with muscle growth.

Let us see how the muscle pump works and what you can do to maximize it, while giving you a much sought-after variety in your training and keeping it fun.

What Causes the Muscle Pump?71gd3v1pqrl-_sl1500_

Intense contraction of the muscles during training compresses the veins which take blood away from muscles. At the same time the arteries are still delivering blood to muscles. 

This leads to a reduced clearance of blood from working muscles and creates an increased concentration of intramuscular blood.

As a result, fluid builds up in the spaces between muscle cells, causing plasma, the liquid component of blood, to move into the muscle. What results is “cellular swelling” or “muscle pump”.

Bodybuilding-type exercises, which typically rely on moderate to higher repetitions and limited rest intervals, are known to increase the pump.

Pump=Musclebuilder

Cell swelling has been shown to increase protein synthesis and decrease protein breakdown in a variety of cell types, not only muscle cells.

A plausible explanation is that cell swelling increases the intracellular pressure inside muscle, which triggers a series of anabolic (building-up) reactions that serve to reinforce the cell to counter this “threat”.

Cell swelling is also thought to increase the activity of specialized cells called satellite cells that help with muscle cell repair. The net result is bigger, stronger muscle fibres.

Who can benefit Happy senior man performing a reverse tricep extension on a lat pulldown machine in the gym.from Pump Training?

You don’t need to lift heavy all the time. Throw in one pump workout once every week. In this way pump training provides much needed variety to your training and also gives your joints a break from heavier weights.

In fact, studies show that using a mix of heavy, medium, and light weights is effective for maximising gains in muscle and strength.

Older individuals seeking to maintain their muscle mass using strength training, which confers a host of  health benefits, will benefit a lot from pump training as it is less taxing to joints. 

Tips to Get a Satisfying Muscle Pump

Below are some of the techniques you may employ to boost muscle pump:

❶ Use a split training system: giving each body part its own training day, whereby you perform multiple sets of several exercises for the same body part. In the traditional split system you generally train each muscle once a week.

 High reps/ short rest sets: use several high repetition sets combined with short rest periods. E.g. 2–3 sets of 20 repetitions with 60 seconds of rest in between sets. Secondly, use of repeated medium repetition sets combined with short rest periods. An example would be 5–10 sets of 8–12 repetitions with 30 seconds of rest in between sets. 

Happy training!

 

About the Author

Veeraj Goyaram, MSc (Med) Exer. Sci (UCT) cum laude, BSc (Hons) Biology.

Veeraj’s passion revolves around researching and developing nutritional products for optimal health and performance, with a particular interest in sports, child and diabetic nutrition products. Veeraj was previously a graduate student at the University of Cape Town, where he examined the effect of exercise and nutrition on the function of genes in muscle. His research was published in renowned scientific journals and medical textbooks on Diabetes and Exercise (PubMed listing). Veeraj keeps healthy by regularly lifting weights and taking daily walks.

Xylitol: Risks and Benefits.

Here’s What You Need to Know:

  • Xylitol is a very popular sugar replacer that is as sweet as sugar. 
  • Xylitol is often believed to be calorie-free but in reality it has only 40% less calories than sugar.  
  • Xylitol in excess can upset your tummy.
  • Xylitol is also toxic to dog and potentially other animals as well.
  • There are safer alternatives to xylitol, namely stevia and erythritol-stevia combinations. 

Xylitol is a popular sweetener offered as a sugar-replacer to diabetics and anyone seeking a healthier sweetener alternative for health reasons. 

Xylitol is the darling of sugar replacers and is mainly used on its own in the form of white crystals. Xylitol also found its way gradually in a number of food and beverage products like low-calorie or sugar-free confectioneries, soft drinks, mints and ice-cream.  

The Pros of Xylitol

The great thing about xylitol is that it is as sweet as sugar and can thus be used as a 1:1 sugar replaStevia with sugar on a brown bowlcer, and has less calories than sugar.

Xylitol is also advantageous because it does not increase blood sugar level significantly following consumption.

Thus, xylitol has a low glycaemic index (GI), a characteristic that makes it ideal for diabetics (1).

□ GI of xylitol: 13

□ GI of sugar: 65

□ GI of glucose: 100

Unlike sugars, xylitol cannot be broken down by bacteria in the mouth to cause dental decay. Xylitol is, therefore, said to be protective against dental caries (2,3).

There are a few facts that xylitol users need to remember that are often not emphasised enough.Twitter

Fact #1: Excess Xylitol Can Cause Intestinal Distress.

man-with-abdominal-painXylitol takes time to be absorbed into the bloodstream and therefore a lot remains in the intestines before being absorbed. This can give digestive distress if one is not used to consume this sweetener or consumed in high amounts (4).  

The xylitol that remains in the intestines attracts water and causes diarhoea and loose stools.

Furthermore, some of the xylitol is fermented by bacteria residing in the intestines, leading to the production of gas and bloating.

What is a safe dosage?

Any amount above 40-50g consumed in a day (total intake) can give digestive issues.

In terms of a dose taken at once, studies have found that that anything above 20g taken at once can give gastro-intestinal distress (4). This is equivalent to about 5 teaspoons of xylitol in pure crystalline form.

But the good news is that the body adapts fairly well to xylitol consumption. It is best to begin with smaller amounts if you are starting to switch to xylitol.

How much xylitol do products contain?

The possibility of an overdose is higher when consuming xylitol from pure crystalline sources and perhaps beverages, rather than sweets, mints and chewing gums.

1 teaspoon of powdered xylitol: 4 grams of xylitol.

1 chewing gum or mint: 0.3g of xylitol (varies according to product).

100g sugar-free ice cream: 6.8g xylitol.

For new users, it is always a good idea to read labels to understand how much xylitol you may be ingesting.

Fact #2: Xylitol is Toxic to Dogspv-xylitol-pet-alert

The increased marketing and use of xylitol as a sweetener in recent years has led to increased risk of pet exposure to this agent.

Xylitol is harmful to dogs and is toxic even in small amounts. When xylitol is accidentally ingested, the dog’s body respond by secreting a massive amount of insulin (5).

As you know, insulin is the hormone that decreases blood sugar levels. The result of this massive increase in insulin is abnormally low blood sugar level (hypoglycaemia) which can be fatal. Also, xylitol causes damage to liver cells, leading to liver failure.

The dose that is harmful to dogs is extremely low. Values between 0.03 to 0.1g xylitol/ kilogram of bodyweight of animal have been reported as toxic. 

With regard to toxicity to other pet animals, like cats, there isn’t much research done on this topic but vet advise to advise extreme caution. 

In 2015 a case was reported in Hermanus, Cape Town of 30 Cape Sugarbirds dropping dead shortly after having ingested water containing xylitol (6).

We would advise to refrain from feeding xylitol to any other pet animals.

Practical applications

If you are a xylitol user who counts calories, make sure to factor in the fact that xylitol has 2.4 calories per gram.

If you are new to xylitol proceed with caution and start with a low dosage.

Don’t give xylitol to pets. Make sure to spread this information.

If you want a zero calorie alternative to xylitol that belongs to the same family consider erythritol. We wrote an article on erythritol (here).

About the Author

Veeraj Goyaram, MSc (Med) Exer. Sci (UCT) cum laude, BSc (Hons) Biology.

Veeraj’s passion revolves around researching and developing nutritional products for optimal health and performance, with a particular interest in sports, child and diabetic nutrition products. Veeraj was previously based as a graduate student at the University of Cape Town, where he examined the effect of exercise and nutrition on the function of genes in muscle. His research was published in renowned scientific journals and medical textbooks on Diabetes and Exercise (PubMed listing). Veeraj keeps healthy by regularly lifting weights and taking daily walks.

Refueling After A Workout [Smoothie Recipe Included]

Here’s What You Need to Know:

  • Post-workout nutrition is a lot more relevant to athletes that the casual exerciser. 
  • If you haven’t eaten a long time before training then it makes sense to rush for your post-workout meal or shake. 
  • The same as above applies if you are training twice a day, using the same muscle groups in both sessions. 
  • Protein and carbohydrates are key nutrients after exercise. 
  • Fats are not detrimental to post-workout recovery. 
  • You can either eat a solid meal or down a protein shake or smoothie (recipe below!)

Are you an athlete or a Recreational Exerciser?

The traditional advice for post-workout nutrition is to down a shake or consume a meal contain mainly protein and carbohydrates immediately following a workout session.

The above is an example of a practice called nutrient timing (1), which is believed to be important for anyone exercising, athletes and non-athletes alike.

Context mattproteinshake-copyers and the truth is that, while it may benefit some athletes, most people don’t need to stress about nutrient timing.

What’s true for the pre-diabetic office worker who’s never exercised is certainly not true for the serious endurance runner or the long-time bodybuilder. In fact, the people who stand to benefit most from specific nutritional strategies around their workouts are athletes.

Should you eat Immediately Postworkout? 

It would benefit you to consume an immediate post-workout meal if:

You are training in the fasted state in the morning after an overnight fast.

You have not eaten anything in a 4-5 hour period before training. E.g. you had lunch at 12:00 and then haven’t eaten anything before your 5:00pm training.

If you train or exercise several times in a day, using the same muscle groups. E.g. Soccer training in the morning and again in the afternoon.

Otherwise, if you have consumed a good pre-exercise meal there is no need to rush for a protein shake or a meal the moment you put down the dumbbells at the gym (2). You may run a few errands after your workout and then have your post-workout meal once you get home.

Key Post-workout Nutrients

14172094_722257704579438_1126576326_n

Protein

Dietary protein is important after workouts because it stimulates protein synthesis to repair and rebuild muscle tissue (3). 

Proteins that are fast-digesting and absorbing have been recommended in the post-exercise period because it was believed that results would be better the faster amino acids, which are the breakdown products of protein, get into muscles to carry out their functions (4).

Hence, the traditional advice of rushing for your protein shake immediately after workout, to benefit from the so called “window of opportunity“.

However, there is no solid evidence that fast-digesting proteins are superior to slow-digesting proteins like whole food proteins after training. Both work great and it all boils down to personal choice. 

If you feel like drinking a shake or a smoothie, go for it. If you crave for whole food, help yourself to a high protein meal, as long as you consume about 20-30g of high quality protein. Use the picture on the right as a guide.

Recommended proteins:

  • Whole eggs. 
  • Cheese or yogurt.
  • Fish or chicken. 
  • Protein shake (e.g whey protein).
  • A recovery shake containing adequate protein.

Carbohydrates

The goal of consuming carbohydrates after a workout is to replace stored carbohydrates, called glycogen, which is used as a fuel during training (5). 

Eating carbohydrates soon after a workout is a lot more relevant to people who exercise often, like twice a day in activities that use the same muscle groups (6). For these individuals, consuming proteins and carbohydrates at the same time gives better results than either nutrient alone because of the greater insulin secretion. 

How much carbohydrates to consume after workouts is dependent on your type of activity and the level you are at. An athlete’s post-workout meal needs to contain 1.1–1.5 grams of carbohydrates per kilogram of bodyweight immediately after training. For a 70kg athlete this means 77 to 105 grams of carbohydrates.

Recommended sources of carbohydrates: 

  • Rice, oats or sweet potatoes
  • Fruits (banana, apple, berries)
  • Pasta
  • Dark, leafy green vegetables

What about fats?

Fat is believed to slow down the absorption of the post-workout meal and is often avoided. But scientific evidence does not show any negative effect of consuming fats on body recovery after training.

For instance, it was found that full-fat milk provided the same muscle-building benefits as skimmed milk after training (7). A high fat meal was also not found to affect muscle glycogen replacement in another study (8). 

About the Author

Veeraj Goyaram, MSc (Med) Exer. Sci (UCT) cum laude, BSc (Hons) Biology.

Veeraj’s passion revolves around researching and developing nutritional products for optimal health and performance, with a particular interest in sports, child and diabetic nutrition products. Veeraj was previously based as a graduate student at the University of Cape Town, where he examined the effect of exercise and nutrition on the function of genes in muscle. His research was published in renowned scientific journals and medical textbooks on Diabetes and Exercise (PubMed listing). Veeraj keeps healthy by regularly lifting weights and taking daily walks.

Iron Nutrition for Adolescents

What You Need to Know:

  • Iron is an important mineral involved in many processes in the body, like oxygen transport. 
  • The body needs more iron during adolescence due to growth and the onset of menstruation.
  • Physical activity and sports increase iron requirements.
  • It is easy to become iron deficient if one is not careful about the diet. 
  • Here we cover some of the tricks to increase iron absorption from food.
  • Iron supplements are not necessary and can be dangerous. 

Adolescents need to get sufficient quantities of iron from their diet as it is a key nutrient for their growth and development.

During adolescence the body requires more iron because this is a phase of physical intense growth and development which requires a higher blood volume. The onset of menstruation in adolescent girls also means that more iron is needed.

Furthermore, physical activity increases the requirement of iron due to increased losses of iron from the body.

Iron deficiency, which can eventually lead to iron-deficiency anaemia is a common nutritional deficiency worldwide among adolescents. This is due to their higher needs coupled with the fact that many adolescents often consume monotonous and unbalanced diets that may negatively affect the intake of iron.

Unfortunately, preventing iron deficiency is not as easy as eating iron-rich foods and supplementing with an iron supplement.

There are a lot of dietary factors that affect the amount of iron from food that enters the circulation and care must be taken when planning diets. 

Supplementation, especially in high doses, is problematic because of potential toxicity issues in the long run and, more acutely, gastrointestinal issues like constipation.

Daily Requirements

The South African department of health sets the daily requirement (Nutrient Reference Values-NRV) of iron at 18mg per day for individuals 4 years and older. 

Iron Deficiency Symptoms

The common symptoms of iron deficiency are reduced memory, concentration and a reduced ability to learn new things. 

In a study done in 5398 children aged 6-16 years in the United States, it was found that children with iron deficiency had greater than twice the risk of scoring below average in math than did children with normal iron status (1).

Fatigue is also among the most common symptoms as reduced iron levels mean that less haemoglobin is available in blood to carry oxygen. Tasks like climbing stairs, walking uphill or exercising become harder.

The heart also beats faster (higher pulse rate) in its attempt to maintain oxygen circulation.

To ascertain the iron levels blood tests are recommended that more accurately give you an idea of iron levels in the body.

However, keep in mind that iron deficiency can have causes that are not related to nutrition and the proper diagnosis conducted by a healthcare professional, is important.

Obtaining Iron from Food

It is recommended to obtain iron from food. Supplements may be considered only under recommendation by a healthcare professional.

Types of food Iron

There are two forms if iron in food, name haeme and non-haeme iron.

Haeme iron: found animal sources like meats, fish and shellfish.

Non-haeme iron: found in plant sources like dark-green leafy vegetables (e.g. Spinach), dried fruits and beans.

Ensuring efficient Iron absorption

In terms of absorption, haeme is much better absorbed than non-haeme iron.

This is because non-haeme iron is susceptible to inhibition by a number of dietary factors which reduce the bioavailability of non-haeme iron. These factors are:

□ Calcium: present in dairy products. Calcium competes against Iron for absorption at the intestines as they use the same transporter.

□ Phytates (present in cereals and grains) and Polyphenols (present in tea and coffee) that bind non-haeme iron making them unavailable for absorption.

All hope is not lost because your body can still absorb non-haeme iron if facilitators are taken in in the meal containing non-haeme iron. These facilitators are Vitamin C and Vitamin A.

Vitamin C is a powerful stimulator of non-haeme iron absorption. My honours thesis was on this very topic (thesis title, “Determinants of Bioavailability in Iron Nutrition: Vitamin C as a Knight in Shining Armour”)

Supplements?

Iron supplements are not recommended unless prescribed by a healthcare professional.

Self-administration of iron can be hazardous because long-term consumption can lead to accumulation of iron in body tissues like the liver.

Excessive iron intake can also cause constipation.

Iron is present in many foods as a fortificant (e.g. in flour and cereals) or in nutritional shakes and multivitamins. These are generally not reason for concern as they are present in small amounts.

Putting it all together

□ Consume animal sourcesthese supply haeme iron that are efficiently absorbed. This is a good way to reverse deficiency.

□ Eat a source of Vitamin Cvitamin C helps with iron absorption and can improve the absorption of non-haeme sources. 

 

About the Author

Veeraj Goyaram

MSc (Med) Exer. Sci (UCT) cum laude, BSc (Hons) Biology.

Veeraj is an exercise and nutritional scientist by training and profession. He is passion revolves around researching and developing nutritional products for optimal health and performance, with a particular interest in sports, child and diabetic nutrition products. Veeraj was previously a graduate student at the University of Cape Town, where he examined how exercise and nutrition influence the function of genes in muscle. His research was published in renowned scientific journals and medical textbooks on Diabetes and Exercise (PubMed listing). Veeraj keeps healthy by regularly lifting weights and takes daily walks.

 

paper writing service

Pin It on Pinterest